Croatia is a country located within Northwestern Europe, and is also a part of the Balkan Peninsula. The country is made up of twenty different counties. One of these counties serves as a city-county–Zagreb, the country’s capital. Croatia is home to around 3.9 million people, and spans an area of around 56,594 square kilometers (or 21,851 square miles). Croatia is a republic with a parliamentary system of government. The President of Croatia serves as the head of state with a five year long term, and is allowed to run for two terms. Currently, the president of Croatia is Zoran Milanović, serving since February of 2020. Croatia is also known to be a very culturally rich country, with 14 UNESCO Intangible Goods, which range from traditions such as lacemaking and wooden toy making to music customs and cuisine.
Because of its vast climate, Croatia can be split into numerous different ecoregions. Along with this, Croatia is one of the most biodiverse countries in Europe. On the coast, expect to find grapes and olives, while central Croatia is home to forests of all kinds. In fact, 44% of all Croatian land can be classified as forest. Many lizards, bears, and even wolves can be found within these forests, as well as hares, foxes, boars, wildcats, and mouflons, a wild sheep. In the waters, expect to find dolphins as well as coral reefs and underwater caves serving as a home for animals of all kinds. Croatia is a country known to be very protective of its nature, with many strict national parks as well as laws going against all sorts of land degradation and dehabitation, as well as protection against invasive species. In fact, about 10% of all Croatian land is made up of eight different national parks, eleven nature parks, as well as two nature reserves.
Following World War II, Croatia underwent an immense period of industrialization, as well as migration from rural areas to more urban areas. Following the Croatian War for Independence in the 90s, the population of Croatia has faced decreases. This is because during the war, large chunks of the population was displaced. As a result, emigration started to rise. Emigration continues to be an issue for Croatia. In fact, in the last decade, the population of Croatia had a decrease of 10%. Along with this, Croatia has a birth rate of around 1.41 child per mother, making this one of the lowest rates in the world.
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